The cultivation of wheat (Triticum spp.) reaches far back into history. Wheat was one of the first domesticated food crops and for 8000 years has been the basic staple food of the major civilizations of Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Wheat occupies major area under cultivation on the earth’s surface among the field crops and it is close third to rice and corn in total world production. Its production is mainly located in the temperate zones of developed and emerging countries. Today its production leads all crops, including rice, maize and potatoes. The optimum growing temperature is about 25°C, with minimum and maximum growth temperatures of 3° to 4°C and 30° to 32°C. Wheat contains minerals, vitamins and fats (lipids), and with a small amount of animal or legume protein added is highly nutritious.

Although the so called bread wheats are common to most of us, there are many uncertainly related species that make up the genus Triticum. This likely was due to a number of natural crossings with wild species during its early evolvement. Some of the species closely related to our common wheats would be einkorn, emmer, durum, and spelt.